Mary Joy Basañez



This chapter presents some major concepts, ideas, and findings on the effects of extracurricular activities to the academic performance of Senior High School students.

Academic Performance

            People often consider grades first when evaluating academic achievement. This includes schools, which rank students by their Grade Point Average (GPA), awarding special designation such as valedictorian and salutatorian for those who graduate first and second in their class. Scholarship organizations and universities also start by looking at grades, as do some employers, especially when hiring recent graduates. Grades carry more weight in some industries, especially technical professions such as law, medicine and finance. Other industries place less importance on GPA, particularly creative professions such as writing or art and occupations such as sales where people skills are more crucial than technical knowledge (Williams, 2017).

According to IGI Global 2017, the academic performance is defined by students’ reporting of past semester CGPA/GPA and their expected GPA for the current semester. The grade point average or GPA is now used by most of the tertiary institutions as a convenient summary measure of the academic performance of their students. The GPA is better measurement because it provides a greater insight into the relative level of performance of individuals and different group of students.

Parent involvement in a child’s early education is consistently found to be positively associated with a child’s academic performance (Hara & Burke, 1998; Hill & Craft, 2003; Marcon, 1999; Stevenson & Baker, 1987). Specifically, children whose parents are more involved in their education have higher levels of academic performance than children whose parents are involved to a lesser degree. The influence of parent involvement on academic success has not only been noted among researchers, but also among policy makers who have integrated efforts aimed at increasing parent involvement into broader educational policy initiatives (Entwisle & Hayduk, 1988;Pedersen, Faucher, & Eaton, 1978).

Extracurricular Activities

            There are many high schools out there today that provide a plethora of extracurricular activities. Some occur before school, some after school, and a few may even take place on the weekends. While some parents are a bit dubious about their children who were participating in extracurricular activities, these activities actually bring with them many benefits. Allowing your child to get involved in extracurricular activities at school is a wise choice, and it can be very important in helping them to develop many working skills, people skills, and more. Of course, while a few activities is a great idea, there is a point where you need to draw a line. Here is a closer look at some of the benefits of extracurricular activities for your child, and how you will know when these activities become too much (Burgess, 2009).

Some of the brightest students don’t earn straight as but are extremely well-rounded, succeeding at everything from music to athletics. The ability to master a diverse set of skills illustrates intelligence, curiosity and persistence, qualities attractive to universities and employers. Some colleges will admit and even award scholarships to students who earned average grades but display a pattern of achievement by consistently learning new skills. Many businesses also see this as a selling point, thinking these candidates are eager to learn and will be easy to train (Hearst Newspapers, 2017).

Nemours Organization (2001) stated that participating in extracurricular activities helps you in other ways. It looks good on job applications and shows admissions officers and employers you’re well-rounded and responsible. Brenzel (2017) emphasized that extracurricular also play a part when you apply to colleges. Most college applications ask about your activities. However, the things you do in your free time reveal a lot about you in ways that grades and test scores can’t. Your accomplishments outside the classroom show that you’re passionate about and that you have qualities valued by colleges. Extracurricular activities appeal to student interests. In addition, according to Mahoney and Cairns (1997) looked at the positive connection to school that participating in extracurricular activities created among students whose prior commitment to the school had been marginal. They discovered that a wider choice of activities resulted in a stronger effect because students’ individual needs and interests were more likely to be met between participation in extracurricular activities and academic performance because each one places a different value both on activities and academics.

Importance of Extracurricular Activities

            Extracurricular activities are a key component of many schools. Reynolds (2006) explained that schools stress many different pillars include academics, service and leadership, fine arts, and athletics. Principals recognize the importance of providing many opportunities for their students to find success. These activities allow students to develop leadership, create lasting friendships, give back to their community, belong to the school family, and find success outside of the classroom. Extracurricular activities can enhance a students’ life, and they can give the students additional skills that they will use for the remainder of their lives. Furthermore, Klesse (2004) found that there was a positive relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and success in high school, college, career, and the community. Klesse shared further that many students need these extracurricular activities to motivate them to be successful in the classroom. Some students earn college scholarships based on their extracurricular activities (sports, fine arts, etc.). Many of these students would not have the opportunity to attend college unless they had enjoyed remarkable success in these activities.

Impact on Students’ Achievement

            After examining the theoretical background of why participation in extracurricular activities is encouraged, it is necessary to explore the literature discussing the impact that participation has on student achievement. The impact that participation in extracurricular activities has on student achievement has been debated for several years. Some researchers claim that there is a positive impact and there are some researchers claim that there are negative impacts. There are several different benchmarks to measure this impact at the high level. Student achievement can be measured by examining GPA. According to Eccles and Barber (1999), adolescents who are not involved in activities achieve at higher rates. A study of 10th grade adolescents found that involvement in team sports, school leadership groups, school spirit activities, academic clubs, and performing arts resulted in higher GPAs when these students became 12th graders.

A study conducted by Hass (2004), the Activities Director at Ogilvie High School, concluded that participation in extracurricular activities did have a positive impact on student achievement. Moreover, Hass states that participating in sports socializes adolescents in ways that promotes educational success. These results suggest that students need to get involved in the various activities offered in their school settings. The results also revealed that students would have better academic results regardless of their backgrounds if they were involved in extracurricular activities.

Conceptual Framework

            The independent variables consist of the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age and sex, the top three extracurricular activities of the Senior High School students serve as the dependent variable. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the study.

                   Independent                                                                                       Dependent

Profile of Senior High School students


·         Section


Top three extracurricular activities School students that affects to the academic

performance of SHS


•Senior High School Student Council

•Academic Quiz

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Study


Theoretical Framework

Our study suggests three major theoretical frameworks to explain the impact of extracurricular activities participation on students’ academic performance. The two theoretical frameworks posited that the level of extracurricular activities participation has (a) negative effect on academic performance (Zero-Sum framework); (b) positive effect on academic performance indirectly as a result of non-academic achievements (Developmental framework).

Zero-Sum Framework

The earliest theoretical framework in the general education literature is the Zero-Sum framework, which arises from Coleman’s (1961) seminal study. Coleman (1961) viewed the student’s society as a finite system in which commitment to academic, athletic, or social values represents a loss to the other two. As athletic participation was the main determinant of social status in school, Coleman (1961) argued that male students may prefer to invest time and energy in sport   extracurricular activities  and ended up neglecting their academic studies. The Zero-Sum framework theorized that extracurricular activities  participation has a negative effect on academic performance because students were devoting more time for their extracurricular activities activities at the expense of their academic studies (Coleman, 1961).

Developmental Framework

The dominant theoretical framework in the general education literature is the

Developmental framework, which theorized that extracurricular activities  participation, has a positive effect on academic performance indirectly as a result of the non-academic and social benefits associated with extracurricular activities participation. Broh (2002) argued that there are three ways which extracurricular activities participation indirectly boosts students’ academic performance. First, extracurricular activities participation helps students develop life skills and characteristics such as a strong work ethic, selfesteem, perseverance, locus of control, which are consistent with positive academic outcomes





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